How is SPC flooring made?

how is spc flooring made

What is SPC flooring?

SPC flooring stands for Stone Plastic Composite flooring, is a high-tech research and development of new ground decorative materials, the use of natural stone powder to form a high-density of solid base, the surface is covered with super-strong wear-resistant polymer PVC wear layer, after Hundreds of procedures to process and become. The product pattern is realistic and beautiful, super wear-resistant, and the surface is bright and not slippery, which is a model of new high-tech materials in the 21st century!

What is SPC flooring made of?

Spc Floor Materials
  • Limestone (Calcium Carbonate)
  • PVC Resin Powder
  • DOTP(Plasticizer)
  • Stabilizer (Ca/Zn)
  • Stearine
  • Pulverizing material
  • PE wax / Carbon black
  • ACR / CPE
  • NOTICE: Based on the above formula each manufacturer is slightly different.

The role of raw materials

The bottom material is often tough and not easy to break. It is composed of polyvinyl chloride, calcium powder, plasticizer, and other materials. The middle layer material is easier to break, so the bottom material and the middle layer material can stretch together to make the board Not easy to upturn.
PVC Resin Powder: PVC is a non-toxic, odorless white powder. It has high chemical stability and good plasticity. PVC is the most widely used and most important polymer in the world, but pure PVC is actually the most unstable polymer, so only after adding appropriate stabilizers and other additives, the advantages of PVC can be realized.
Carbon Black: the pigment with the strongest tinting power and hiding power, the most stable pigment, heat resistance, chemical resistance, and light resistance
Limestone Powder: insoluble in water and soluble in acid, function: increase opacity and improve flexibility.
DOTP (Plasticizer): It is a colorless, low-viscosity liquid. As PVC itself is a hard material, after adding a plasticizer, the plastic product can be soft, easy to bend, fold, elastic, and easy to shape.
Stabilizer: It can slow down the reaction, maintain chemical balance, reduce surface tension, prevent light, thermal decomposition, or oxidation reactions, etc., thereby promoting product quality stability.

Main equipment to produce SPC flooring

  • Mixing and Heating Line
  • Extruding Line
  • Hot Pressing Line
  • SPC Production Line
  • UV Coating Line
  • Annealing Line
  • Multi-Blade Sawing Line
  • HOMAG Profiling Line
  • Painted Bevel Line

SPC flooring production process

1. Mixing Materials

Put the PVC resin powder, plasticizer, stabilizer, and carbon black into the mixer according to the formula ratio, and the machine automatically adds the plasticizer. add limestone powder, stir for about 30 minutes, and send the evenly mixed mixture to the conveyor belt and enter the internal mixer for heating and mixing.

mixing materials

2. Extruding Blocks

The raw material powder enters the roller, and gradually forms after being rolled by the roller. The temperature is about 170°C. Finally, the raw material is cooled and refined, will be produced into the middle base layer and bottom base layer through dense refining, and the raw material is cut into 1*1m or 1*1.3m blocks.

extruding blocks

3. Embossing

Spread canvas, embossed board, soft film (matt film, high-temperature paper), bottom/middle material, wear-resistant layer, color film, and soft film (matt film, high-temperature paper) on the steel plate in sequence.

spc flooring production line

4. Hot Pressing

After being pressed with another steel plate, it is sent to the hot press, continuously heated and pressurized, and taken out after about 40 minutes. After the soft film is torn off, the floor is pressed into shape. After hot pressing, the product layer is firmly bonded to the layer.

5. UV Coating

Put the pressed whole floor into the conveyor belt, apply a layer of UV paint uniformly by the roller, and then receive ultraviolet radiation and enter the oven for baking.
In this process, the UV paint will be applied twice, and the ultraviolet radiation will be applied twice. The purpose of UV paint is to increase the gloss to meet customer requirements (the brightness of the floor is not directly related to the amount of UV paint, mainly controlled by the brightness of the UV paint).

uv coating

6. Annealing

After the paint is fully cured, the floor is sent to cold water to cool. Finally, use a cooler to dry the water on the surface. Finally, put it into the normal temperature and normal state of being.
The purpose of tempering is to strengthen the shrinkage and warpage of the PVC floor through heating and cooling on the assembly line.


7. Shaped the Floor

The floor is heated by the machine to make it easier to punch. Forming different shapes.

shaped the floor

8. Profiling

Profiling is carried out according to customer requirements. Adjusted by the knife adjuster according to the size of the floor. After adjustment, put the pieces of the floor on the conveyor belt, first profiling the long side, then the short side.
The profiling machine guarantees the high accuracy of click products.


9. Painted V Groove

After painting the V groove, the texture of the product imitating the wood texture is more realistic.

10. Applying Silent Mats

If the SPC flooring has an underlayment layer, it is added at this stage. The underlayment layer is placed on the bottom of the SPC core layer and laminated together with heat and pressure.


11. Quality Control

After the flooring is manufactured, it goes through a quality control process to ensure that each plank meets the required standards. This includes checking the thickness, dimensions, and color consistency of the flooring.

quality control

12. Package

The floor inspects and does the final cleaning before entering the box. In particular, it is necessary to remove obvious scratches, impurities, dirt, bubbles, color difference, discoloration, white edges, delamination, folding, bevel, residual angle, etc. failed products. Finally seals the box, checks the label, and marks the content accurately.

spc flooring package

13. Loading for Shipping

The packaged boxes of flooring are then loaded onto trucks or shipping containers for transportation to distributors and retailers.

spc flooring loading for shipping

SPC flooring is a popular and durable option for homeowners and businesses alike. Knowing how SPC flooring is made can help you make an informed decision when choosing the right flooring for your needs. With its many benefits and manufacturing process, SPC flooring is a great choice for those looking for a high-quality, affordable flooring option.

SUNTONE is a vinyl flooring manufacturer that specializes in providing high-quality vinyl flooring to businesses and projects worldwide. Our factory has advanced SPC/LVT production lines and an advanced laboratory to ensure the quality of our products. We are committed to providing the best materials and have become a designated OEM supplier for many famous brands abroad, exporting worldwide!

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Hi, I’m Rick Choi. Marketing director of SUNTONE. In these articles, I want to share the knowledge of vinyl flooring so that you can make an informed decision when choosing a vinyl flooring supplier and product. 

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Rick Choi

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